The Pragmatics of the Internet. Web 2.0 as an Environment

The Pragmatics of the Internet. Web 2.0 as an Environment
ISBN: 978-83-233-3511-5
year: 2013
format: B5
pages: 296
paperback
language: Polish
Whom is this book for?
  • For managers, who are under the pressure of the marketing departments which demands new solutions of the Internet including also mechanisms of Web 2.0 and want to understand perfectly what it means.
  • For the people from the marketing adn PR agencies, who want to know exactly what is Web 2.0 and going to convince thier clients to use this technology.
  • For the ambitious specialists of marketing, web developers, blogers who want to know how to provide succesful communication over the Internet by the Web 2.0 techniques.
  • For the students who need a proper compendium of the knowledge about the Web 2.0 – still working and developing idea for the Internet solutions.
  • For everybody who want to understand how in practise the Interenet develops, which technologies it uses and what consequences it causes for the business.

Summary

The book’s main thesis is simple: the Internet as a separate reality. This observation appears, on first examination, to be banal yet it offers deeper levels of reflection, ones that direct themselves towards fundamental questions; for these relate to the immediate opposition that is aroused between the digital world and the real. This opposition does not make the explanation of the problem area any easier for it recalls one of the key problems of the twentieth century namely the collapse of certainty with regard to the truth of judgements about the world. This crisis also touched the area of science , striking at the very heart of certainty as personified by mathematics and causing a rapid wave of meta-academic reflection endeavouring to understand afresh the sources of legitimised knowledge or to once again interpret the academic processes in the creation of truth. These matters within the context of digital technology were dealt with in more detail by the author’s previous book: Deus ex machina. The New media and Their Cognitive Design; in the present the Internet constitutes the subject of research, as a specific field of materialisation and the most developed form of these technologies.

The epistemic context still remains, however, the first and most fundamental basis and starting point for enquiries, while among those others - methodological questions appear to be especially urgent. The real-digital alternation problem manifests itself already at the operational level as an absence of appropriate research tools. For there arises the question as to what scientific instrument is able to comprehend the reality subjected to the Internet, given that the subject literature constantly attests to its complexity and diversity, and also to its complicated links with various fields of analogue life. The book finds solutions within humanistic management that enables interdisciplinariness and bases itself on meta-theoretical reflection (epistemological) and attempts to preserve linkage with the world of real phenomena under the threat of disintegration. The last postulate of maintaining the pragmatic presence of praxis as the background for the conducted analysis is one of the most important factors in the work, allowing for it to be treated at the same time as a form of handbook.

The category of environment has been proposed within the framework of the selected discipline as a fairly spacious container of content while simultaneously maintaining a strong link with the wave of social, political and technological phenomena carried by the latest wave of the Internet so called Web 2.0. This phase was symbolically commenced in 2005 thanks to Tim O’Reilly’s publication based on the rapidly developing technology and its commercial application. This introduced its own mechanisms of management within all the areas of organisational functioning connected with the Web. New principles for the presence of client/user and models of business activity were formed. These changes occurred simultaneously with broad social and political processes, ones reconstructed under the influence of the developing Internet, which further influenced and influences a wider context of organisation functioning. In this part the basic inspiration was drawn from David Baron’s handbook entitled Business and its Environment.

The present book presents a detailed analysis of the entirety of the phenomena and the changes connected with Web 2.0 and brought about by them, starting from the effects identified by Tim O’Reilly, supplemented by their most up-to-date continuations such as cloud processing and other lesser known concepts. Simultaneously it tries to preserve a wide perspective, one already introduced by O’Reilly, covering technological, business, economic, social, political and cultural questions. With this aim in mind it has been divided into two parts. The first is devoted to general matters connected with the Internet. It contains an introduction to the principles of Internet economics, allowing the use of the category of environment. This category is subsequently used for the needs of analysis and is broadened in scope, in which a certain natural historical trend in the sciences on management finds its realisation. Its extensive nature forces the Internet to be viewed as a weave of the three main groups of beliefs as to its essence: concentrating on the technological current as the most significant source of its dynamics; convictions that have the character of free mythicization, functioning however as real social forces and convictions interpreting the Internet as an expanse for the realisation of economic, social and political phenomena. In this situation it appears as a complex conglomerate, slipping outside of the typical research tool and demanding the introduction of a more general and abstract point of view. This conclusion is supported in the first part by extensive descriptions of the context in which it was born: the cultural (equally the counter-cultural) and the economic (of a global scale and concerning certain fundamental questions within this field).

Part two of the book attempts to provide arguments taken from the area of the functioning of the latest phase of the Internet that is to say Web 2.0. With this aim it analyses in detail all the practical realisations of the technological solutions that have occurred, in the order proposed by the first text devoted to this formation, the article by Tim O’Reilly entitled What Is Web 2.0, Design Patterns and Business Models for the Next Generation of Software of 2005. This part constitutes an exhaustive review of these solutions and also of the models of management resulting from them, of the economic and social effects as well as the business strategies used. It is therefore a pragmatic review of the reality of Web 2.0, fulfilling two aims: proving the complexity of the conglomerate that the Internet became, supported in particular on matters of a commercial character as well as the supplying of, if possible, a complete, textbook knowledge of the subject. This is accompanied as widely as possible by an examination of the subject literature on both individual topics as well as those with holistic ambitions, and equally hundreds of examples drawn from the Web. The book is a supplement to the Website run by the author, which contains much additional information and offers a Web platform allowing one to utilise (and illustrate) the tools and possibilities of Web 2.0.

Contents

Part I. Internet as a subject of management
The economics of the Internet 17
The surroundings and the environment 34
Web 2.0 as the environment of the management 59
The formation of the utopian ideas of the Internet and their
real foundations 73
A digression about the ACTA 82
The control over the Internet issue 85
The dramatic move of Jon Postel 88
The wider apsects of the control over the Internet 91
The commercialization of the Internet and its
macroecnomical context 98
The macroeconomical context 109

The first part defines the Internet as a specific environment in a sense valids in the science of the management. It has a wide character because it covers not only the economical issues but also the political, social and even cultural bias. One can find here rare informations about the developing in the net such ideas as freedom, rising up the control over it, the level of its regulation and a rapid growth of the commercial sector, which took place in the context of the global economical changes.
Part II. The environment of the Web 2.0
The contexts of the rise of Web 2.0 121
What Is Web 2.0 (Co to jest Web 2.0) 131
Network as a platform 134
Harnessing the collective intelligence 136
Blogs 138
The collective intelligence 143
„Long tail” 146
Ratings, rankings, PageRank 152
Search Engine Optimization (SEO), wyszukiwarki, wyszukiwanie 156
Folksonomy 164
RSS and syndicalization 169
Open source i peer production 174
Crowdsourcing 202
The data is the next „Intel inside” 210
The end of the software release cycle 220
Software as a Service 227
Lightweight programming models 229
Web services 232
Software above the level of a single
device 238
Rich user experiences 246
The theory of the Web 2.0 and the process of mitilogization 259

The second part desribes one by one the technologies and organizational inventions connected with still valid phase of the Internet called Web 2.0 and tries to explain all its basic mechanisms and also their latest realizations.
In this way the second part describes the pragmatical face of the environment of the Internet, thats mean that it shows the ways of use of the Web 2.0 as a widelu understand environment of the different organizations.
The basics of this desription come from the famous article What is Web 2.0 by Tim O'Reilly.

Links

The list of the all links shown in the book:
Part I. The Internet as a subject of the management
s. 19   http://www.internet2.edu/about/
s. 19   http://www.pionier.net.pl/online/pl/jednostki/1/Konsorcjum_PIONIER.html
s. 26   http://www.federalreserve.gov/
s. 28   http://www.e-mentor.edu.pl/artykul/index/numer/17/id/375
s. 28   http://www.e-mentor.edu.pl/artykul/index/numer/19/id/414
s. 28   http://www.cs.uu.nl/docs/vakken/ec/Timmers_BMem.pdf
s. 28   http://digitalenterprise.org/models/models.html
s. 31   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tom_Hayes_(author)
s. 42   http://www.openisbn.com/author/Richard_L._Daft/73434
s. 44   http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/environment
s. 44   http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/surroundings
s. 56   http://www.hofkirchner.uti.at/icts-wh-profile/pdf1455.pdf
s. 56   http://www.thealtitudejournal.net/uploads/4/2/3/3/4233079/bastos_altitude_9_2011.pdf
s. 58   http://www9.org/w9cdrom/160/160.html
s. 59   http://www.rfc-archive.org/getrfc.php?rfc=1958
s. 59   http://www.law.harvard.edu/faculty/directory/index.html?id=419
s. 71   http://sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/1288776/000119312504142742/ds1a.htm#toc59330_25b
s. 74   http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/wired
s. 74   http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,982602,00.html
s. 75   http://www.wholeearth.com/index.php
s. 76   http://www.darpa.mil/About/History/History.aspx
s. 77   http://www.wholeearth.com/issue/1010/article/195/we.are.as.gods
s. 78   http://www.parc.com/about/
s. 79   http://rheingold.com/
s. 79   http://www.wired.com/
s. 81   http://wholeearth.com/issue/1340/article/63/the.computational.metaphor
s. 81   http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/13.08/tech.htm
s. 82   http://wyborcza.pl/1,76842,11105990,Internauci__My__narod.html
s. 82   http://wyborcza.pl/1,76842,11012642,ACTA_ad_acta__Co_ma_wspolnego_internet_z_biblioteka.html
s. 82   https://www.eff.org/cases/eff-and-public-knowledge-v-ustr
s. 82   http://di.com.pl/news/30823,0,ACTA_Wyciekl_caly_szkic_porozumienia.html
s. 82   http://www.krytykapolityczna.pl/Serwispiracki/ACTAwdatach/menuid-289.html
s. 82   http://www.tokfm.pl/Tokfm/1,103085,11010899,Na_kilka_godzin_padly_strony_Sejmu__prezydenta_i_Ministerstwa.html
s. 83   http://twitter.com/anonymouswiki
s. 83   https://maps.google.com/maps/ms?hl=pl&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&msa=0&msid=212120558776447282985.0004b7b33e16f13c710c7&t=m&ll=48.04871,9.755859&spn=22.638476,54.404297&z=4&source=embed
s. 83   http://www.mediarp.pl/acta/mapa-protestow
s. 83   http://www.avaaz.org/pl/about.php
s. 83   http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/jul/20/avaaz-activism-slactivism-clicktivism
s. 83   http://www.tokfm.pl/Tokfm/1,102433,11251920,Blisko_2_5_mln_podpisow_pod_petycja_przeciw_ACTA.html
s. 83   http://fakty.interia.pl/raport/internauci-przeciwko-acta/news/parlament-europejski-odrzucil-acta,1818298,7906
s. 84   http://www.nytimes.com/2012/01/05/opinion/internet-access-is-not-a-human-right.html?_r=1
s. 84   http://documents.latimes.com/un-report-internet-rights/
s. 87   http://www.aclu.org/
s. 87   http://www.ietf.org/
s. 87   https://www.eff.org/about/history
s. 88   http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/3.10/ietf_pr.html%20
s. 89   http://www.iana.org/glossary
s. 89   http://www.iana.org/domains/root
s. 92   http://www.google.com/transparencyreport/governmentrequests/PL/
s. 94   http://technologie.gazeta.pl/internet/1,104530,12684222,Europa_chce_wymusic_na_Google_zmiany_w_polityce_prywatnosci_.html
s. 95   http://www.ietf.org/
s. 95   http://www.icann.org/
s. 95   https://www.internetsociety.org/
s. 97   http://opennet.net/
s. 97   http://www.vagla.pl/
s. 99   http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/
s. 100   http://www.iana.org/about
s. 100   http://about.networksolutions.com/site/network-solutions-is-a-remarkable-company/(nieczynny)
s. 101   http://www.nsf.gov/about/
s. 101   http://merit.edu/research/nsfnet_article.php
s. 102   http://www.ncsa.illinois.edu/AboutUs/
s. 104   http://www.nask.pl/run/n/Historia
s. 104   http://internetum.blox.pl/html/1310721,262146,21.html?850475
s. 104   http://www.mit.edu/people/mkgray/net/
s. 105   http://www.webhosting.info/registries/
s. 106   http://hbr.org/1958/11/management-in-the-1980s/ar/1
s. 108   http://windows.microsoft.com/pl-PL/windows/history
s. 114   http://a-cross.com/technology/
s. 114   http://www.forbes.com/forbes/2010/0208/investing-mutual-funds-stocks-pimco-new-normal.html
s. 115   http://www.hbrp.pl/redakcja_poleca.php?id=819&t=34nowa-normalnosc34-w-swiecie-biznesu
s. 116   http://www.donsull.com/
s. 116   http://www.internetsociety.org/internet/how-it%E2%80%99s-evolving/future-scenarios
s. 121   http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html
s. 121   http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/8558257.stm
s. 122   http://www.sec.gov/about/whatwedo.shtml
s. 123   http://www.cisco.com/web/about/index.html
s. 124   http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1977/
s. 126   http://www.federalreserve.gov/default.htm
s. 126   http://www.federalreserveeducation.org/
s. 126   http://www.web2con.com/web2con/
s. 126   http://www.web2summit.com
s. 126   http://www.google.com/insights/search/?hl=pl#q=%22web%202.0%22&cmpt=q
s. 127   http://www.carlotaperez.org
s. 130   http://www9.org/w9cdrom/160/160.html
s. 131   http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/au/3792
s. 131   http://www.web2con.com/web2con/
s. 132   http://radar.oreilly.com
s. 132   http://oreilly.com/about/
s. 133   http://oreilly.com/web2/archive/what-is-web-20.html
s. 135   http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html
s. 136   http://www.nytimes.com/1995/03/20/news/20iht-web.html?pagewanted=all
s. 139   http://www.time.com/time/covers/0,16641,20061225,00.html
s. 140   http://technorati.com/
s. 140   http://nmincite.com/
s. 140   http://blog.nielsen.com/nielsenwire/online_mobile/buzz-in-the-blogosphere-millions-more-bloggers-and-blog-readers/
s. 140   http://wordpress.org/
s. 140   http://links.net/
s. 147   http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/tgm/table.do?tab=table&plugin=1&language=en&pcode=tin00067
s. 150   http://hbr.org/2008/07/should-you-invest-in-the-long-tail/ar/1
s. 150   http://www.hpl.hp.com/research/idl/papers/ranking/ranking.html
s. 153   http://wyborcza.biz/biznes/1,101562,11064286,Google_wycial_wielkie_porownywarki_cenowe_z_wynikow.html
s. 153   http://ilpubs.stanford.edu:8090/422/
s. 153   http://ilpubs.stanford.edu:8090/361/
s. 153   http://www.google.com/patents/US6285999
s. 153   http://www.nytimes.com/2006/11/12/business/12web.html?pagewanted=all
s. 157   http://searchenginewatch.com/page/guides
s. 158   http://searchengineland.com/author/danny-sullivan
s. 158   http://searchengineland.com/
s. 158   http://searchmarketingexpo.com/
s. 158   http://sesconference.com/
s. 158   http://sesconference.com/about.php
s. 160   http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2165515/Facebook-Search-Engine-Overhaul-in-Works
s. 160   http://www.business-week.com/articles/2012-03-28/fecebook-delves-deeper-into-search
s. 160   https://plus.google.com/114250946512808775436/posts/VaQu9sNxJuY
s. 160   http://www.top500.org/
s. 160   https://plus.google.com/114250946512808775436/posts/gTFgij36o6u
s. 161   http://searchenginewatch.com/article/2099640/Universal-Search-Which-Formats-Dominate-in-Googles-Results-Study
s. 161   http://www.ebizmba.com/articles/search-engines
s. 161   https://www.google.pl/intl/pl/about/company/philosophy/
s. 163   http://www.quaerosearchengine.com/articles/2934/What-is-the-Quaero-Search-Engine
s. 165   http://www.vanderwal.net/folksonomy.html
s. 168   http://mrtaggy.com/
s. 169   http://pajek.imfm.si/doku.php
s. 170   http://www.marketingterms.com/dictionary/stickiness/
s. 171   http://www.w3.org/Consortium/facts#people
s. 171   http://www.w3.org/RDF/
s. 171   http://www.syndic8.com/stats.php?Section=feeds#tabtable
s. 172   http://technet.microsoft.com/library/cc722487.aspx
s. 173   http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3092.txt
s. 173   http://lanyrd.com/topics/foo-camp/past/
s. 173   http://wiki.oreillynet.com/foocamp04/index.cgi
s. 173   http://www.nytimes.com/2006/05/14/magazine/14publishing.html?_r=4pagewanted=all&
s. 174   http://oreilly.com/openbook/freedom/
s. 174   http://stallman.helion.pl/
s. 174   http://www.gnu.org/
s. 175   http://moglen.law.columbia.edu/
s. 175   http://www.miasik.net/articles/moglen.html
s. 175   http://www.gnu.org/gnu/initial-announcement.html#f1
s. 175   http://www.fsf.org/
s. 176   http://www.gnu.org/philosophy/free-sw.en.html
s. 176   http://www.fsf.org/campaigns
s. 176   http://oreilly.com/oreilly/press/freeware.html
s. 177   http://opensource.org/docs/osd
s. 177   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Linux_distributions
s. 177   http://distrowatch.com/
s. 179   http://www.gnu.org/licenses/licenses.html
s. 180   http://www.linuxfoundation.org
s. 180   http://www.linuxfoundation.org/publications/linux-foundation
s. 181   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Linux_adopters
s. 181   http://www.linuxfoundation.org/publications/linux-foundation/linux-adoption-trends-end-user-report-2012
s. 181   http://www.linuxfoundation.org/publications/understanding-the-open-source-development-model
s. 183   http://www.redhat.com/
s. 183   http://www.redhat.com.pl/
s. 183   http://www.redhat.com.pl/about/
s. 183   http://www.redhat.com.pl/about/company/history.html
s. 183   http://www.canonical.com
Part II. The environment of the Web 2.0
s. 184   http://www.canonical.com/about-canonical/canonical-and-open-source
s. 184   http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1911.html
s. 184   http://finance.yahoo.com/q?s=IBM
s. 184   http://www.ibm.com/investor/2q12/press.phtml
s. 185   http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/history/year_1997.html
s. 186   http://www.amazon.com/The-World-Is-Flat-Twenty-first/dp/0374292884
s. 186   http://httpd.apache.org/ABOUT_APACHE.html
s. 186   http://www.apache.org/
s. 187   http://sourceforge.net/about
s. 190   http://code.google.com/intl/pl/soc/
s. 191   http://www.eclipse.org/org/
s. 192   http://www.fsf.org/
s. 192   http://opensource.org/
s. 192   http://www.linuxfoundation.org/about
s. 196   http://news.netcraft.com/archives/category/web-server-survey/
s. 196   http://gs.statcounter.com/#mobile_os-ww-monthly-201209-201209-bar
s. 196   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_open_source_software_packages
s. 196   http://directory.fsf.org/wiki/Main_Page
s. 196   http://www.blackducksoftware.com/about
s. 196   http://meta.ohloh.net/us/
s. 196   http://www.ohloh.net/p
s. 197   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:About
s. 197   http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:O_Wikipedii
s. 197   http://s23.org/wikistats/wikipedias_html.php?sort=good_desc
s. 197   http://setiathome.berkeley.edu/sah_about.php
s. 198   http://slashdot.org/mode-ration.shtml
s. 199   http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Henryk_Batuta
s. 199   http://www.edge.org/3rd_culture/lanier06/lanier06_index.html
s. 202   http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/14.06/crowds.html
s. 203   http://www.threadless.com/
s. 204   http://press.istockphoto.com/pr/isp/background.aspx
s. 204   http://www.innocentive.com
s. 205   https://www.mturk.com/mturk/welcome
s. 206   http://www.netflixprize.com/
s. 206   http://www.ideastorm.com/idea2AboutIdeaStorm?v=1350558909411
s. 207   http://www.innovationchallenge.com/
s. 207   http://wbi.worldbank.org/developmentmarketplace/
s. 207   http://www.xprize.org/
s. 207   http://apac.redhat.com/redhatchallenge2012/blog/en/index.html
s. 207   http://www.microtask.com/
s. 207   http://tongal.com/home
s. 207   http://whinot.com/about.html
s. 208   http://www.crowdsourcing.org/about
s. 208   http://www.massolution.com/about
s. 210   http://www.intel.com/pressroom/intel_inside.htm
s. 211   http://www.googleventures.com/team/hal-varian
s. 211   http://people.ischool.berkeley.edu/~hal/
s. 211   http://www.wired.com/culture/culturereviews/magazine/17-06/nep_googlenomics?currentPage=all
s. 211   http://adwords.google.com
s. 212   https://investor.google.com/corporate/code-of-conduct.html
s. 213   http://googlepress.blogspot.com/2003/03/google-builds-worlds-largest.html
s. 213   http://www.vaughns-1-pagers.com/internet/adwords-adsense-diagram.gif
s. 215   http://wyborcza.biz/biznes/1,100896,11064286,Google_wycial_wielkie_porownywarki_cenowe_z_wynikow.html
s. 215   https://www.moniker.com/aboutus.jsp
s. 215   http://www.housing-maps.com/
s. 216   http://www.mapquest.com/
s. 216   http://www.bing.com/maps/
s. 216   http://maps.yahoo.com
s. 216   https://maps.google.com/
s. 216   http://googleblog.blogspot.com/2005/02/mapping-your-way.html
s. 216   http://www.googlemapsmania.blogspot.com/
s. 216   http://www.programmableweb.com/mashups
s. 217   http://www.programmableweb.com/mashup-tag-cloud
s. 217   http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/bb906060.aspx
s. 218   http://www.webmashup.com/
s. 218   http://www.webservicelist.com/
s. 218   http://www.programmableweb.com/
s. 218   http://www-142.ibm.com/software/products/pl/pl/category/data
s. 218   http://www-05.ibm.com/pl/cloud/%20
s. 219   http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/pl/pl/business_analytics/ideas/index.html?re=spf
s. 219   http://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/pl/pl/overview/ideas/index.html?re=plsph2.1
s. 219   http://newsroom.cisco.com/overview
s. 219   http://www.cisco.com/en/US/solutions/collateral/ns341/ns525/ns537/ns705/ns1175/Cloud_Index_White_Paper.pdf
s. 222   http://www.perl.org
s. 222   http://python.org/
s. 222   http://www.php.net
s. 222   http://www.ruby-lang.org
s. 223   http://avc.blogs.com/a_vc/2006/03/the_freemium_bu.html
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